I have tried to be as accurate as possible while creating this list of ingredients. If you notice any mistakes or if what you are looking for is missing from this list, then please contact me.
Please note that:
- Some substances in this list (even those marked as vegan) might have been tested on animals.
- Some substances in this list (even those marked as vegan) can be undesirable for use because of associated health problems.
- Ingredients that companies define as "synthetic" can have animal ingredients as their starting raw material. One example is vitamin D3, which can be derived from animal ingredients like lanolin, even though the company has defined it as "synthetic".
(A) = Animal ingredient
(V) = Vegan ingredient (synthetic, vegetable or plant/mineral-derived)
(B) = Ingredient exists in both animal and vegan versions
Acesulfame/Acesulfame Potassium/Acesulfame K/Ace K (V): an artificial sweetener. Also sold commercially as Sunette or Sweet One. It has no nutritional value or calories. Might increase cancer risk in humans.
Acetate (B): Vitamin A
Actinidin (V): enzyme derived from kiwi fruit used in the food industry.
Adrenaline (B): comes from the adrenal glands of hogs, cattle and sheep
Agar-agar (agar) (V): extracted from seaweeds
Albumen/Albumin (B): a group of simple proteins composed of nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and sulfur that are soluble in water. Albumen is usually derived from eggwhites (ovalbumin), but can also be found in plasma (serum albumin), milk (lactalbumin) and vegetables and fruits.
Allantoin (B): can be extracted from urea (from the urine of most animals, including humans) or from herbs such as comfrey or uva ursi
Allura Red (B): FD&C Red 40
Aloe Vera (V): A compound expressed from the leaf of the aloe plant.
Alpha hydroxy acids (B): naturally-occurring chemicals derived from fruit or milk
Aluminum Hydroxide (V): manufactured by dissolving bauxite in sodium hydroxide.
Aluminum Sulfate (V): used in the purification of drinking water and in the paper manufacturing industry. Produced by adding aluminum hydroxide to sulfuric acid.
Ambergris (A): morbid concretion obtained from the intestine of the sperm whale
Amino acids (B): 'building blocks' of proteins
Amniotic fluid (A): fluid surrounding the fetus within the placenta
Amylase (B): enzyme derived from either animal (usually porcine pancreas), fungal, bacterial or plant source (barley malt).
Anchovy (A): small fish of the herring family
Angora (A): fiber obtained from angora rabbits
Annatto (V): a vegetable dye from a tropical tree
Anthocyanins (V): water-soluble plant pigments
Arachidonic acid (A):liquid unsaturated fatty acid that can be found in the liver, brain, glands, and fat of animals
Artificial (B): product is made by humans from natural ingredients. Like synthetic products, it would not exist without human intervention.
Ascorbic Acid (V): a water-soluble vitamin found in vegetables and fruits or made synthetically
Aspartame (V): an artificial sweetener known as NutraSweet prepared from aspartic acid and phenylalanine (vegan according to the NutraSweet Company)
Aspartic Acid (B): Aminosuccinate acid. An amino acid occurring in animals and plants. Usually synthesized from glutamate for commercial purposes.
Aspic (A): savory jelly derived from meat and fish
Astrakhan (A): skin of still born or very young lambs from a breed originating in Astrakhan, Russia
Baker's Yeast (V): the common name for yeast used as a leavening agent in bakery products.
Bauxite (V): an aluminum ore, which is the main commercial source of aluminum.
Bee pollen (A): microsporic grains in seed plants gathered by bees then collected from the legs of bees
Beeswax (B): wax usually obtained from melting honeycomb with boiling water, straining it, and cooling it. Can be manufactured synthetically
Beet Sugar (V): sugar derived from sugar beets
Benzoic Acid (V): produced by the oxidation of toluene with an oxygen-containing gas in the presence of a heavy metal oxidation catalyst.
Beta Carotene (V): the carotene that's important in the diet as a precursor of vitamin A. It is used as a food coloring. Note: some manufacturers use gelatin as a stabilizer for beta carotene, to help it disperse in liquids.The gelatin won't necessarily be listed in the ingredient list of the product.
Betatene (V): trade name for a naturally occurring blend of carotenes, including beta carotene. It is derived from the sea algae Dunaliella salina.
Biotin (B): a whitish crystlalline powder, also known as Vitamin H, Vitamin B Factor or Vitamin B7. It can be derived from animal cells, milk or plant sources (like fruits) or produced synthetically.
Bone/Bonemeal (A): animal bone
Bone char(coal)/Boneblack (A): animal bone ash. Black residue from bones calcined in closed vessels. Used especially as a pigment or as a decolorizing absorbent in sugar manufacturing.
Bone phosphate (A): manufactured from animal bones
Bonito (A):smaller relative of the tuna fish. It's used as an ingredient in Japanese cuisine. See katsuobushi.
Brawn (A): boiled meat, ears and tongue of pig
Brewer's Yeast (V): live yeast used in beer brewing or deactivated yeast obtained as a by-product of beer brewing and used as a nutritional yeast product.
Brilliant Blue FCF (B): FD&C Blue 1
Bristle (A): stiff animal hair, usually from pigs
Bromelain (V): enzyme derived from the fruit, stem and leaves of the pineapple plant.
Butane (V): a gaseous component of natural gas. It's extracted during the production of petroleum products like gasoline or produced from crude oil.
Calcium Carbonate (B): tasteless, odorless powder that occurs naturally in marble, limestone, coral, eggshells, pearls or oyster shells
Calcium Chloride (V): odorless white to off-white granules, powder or liquid. Produced in a variety of ways, including treating limestone with hydrochloric acid, combining limestone with a sodium chloride solution and by concentrating and purifying naturally occurring brines from salt lakes and salt deposits. Has many uses including additive for foods, deicing agent for sidewalks and roads, water treatment.
Calcium Disodium EDTA (V): a synthetic preservative used to prevent crystal formation and to retard color loss. Has caused health problems and is banned in Australia and certain other countries.
Calcium Hydroxide (B): also known as slaked lime. Used as acidity regulator in drinks and frozen foods or as a preservative. It's produced commercially by treating lime with water or by mixing calcium chloride and sodium hydroxide. It's most commonly derived from limestone, but can also derived from seashells.
Calcium Lactate (B): the calcium salt of Lactic Acid
Calcium Phosphate (B): (Monobasic, Dibasic and Tribasic) a mineral salt found in rocks and bones. Used as an anti-caking agent in cosmetics and food, mineral supplement, abrasive in toothpaste and jelling agent. Also known as calcium rock.
Calcium Propionate (V): a food additive used as a preservative in many products. It's the calcium salt of propionic acid and is synthetically produced.
Calcium Stearate (B): mineral calcium with stearic acid.
Calcium stearoyl-2-lactylate (B): the calcium salt of the stearic acid ester of lactyl lactate.
Candelilla wax (V): a vegetable wax obtained from candelilla plants.
Cane Sugar (B): sugar obtained from sugarcane. In some countries (like the U.S.), cane sugar is often processed through boneblack.
Capiz (A): shell
Caramel (B): used as a coloring. It is manufactured by heating carbohydrates with or without acids or alkalis. Possible carbohydrates used are corn, beet sugar, cane sugar, wheat or potatoes. The great majority of caramel is derived from corn and will be vegan. However, some caramel is derived from cane sugar and not necessarily vegan.
Carbamide (B): Urea
Carbon Black (B): Vegetable Carbon
Carbonic Acid (V): a weak acid formed when carbon dioxide combines with water.
Carmine/Carminic acid (A): Cochineal
Carnauba wax (V): wax obtained from the leaves of the carnauba palm
Carotene (V): red-orange pigment found in plants and fruits, consisting of alpha carotene, beta carotene and gamma-carotene It can be produced synthetically, derived from carrots or sea algae.
Carrageenan (V): extracted from various red algae and especially Irish Moss
Casein (A): milk protein
Cashmere (A): fine wool from the cashmere goat and wild goat of Tibet
Castor/Castoreum (A): Obtained from the anal scent gland of the beaver
Castor oil (V): A vegetable oil expressed from the castor bean.
Catalase (B): enzyme that decomposes hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen. It is derived from cattle liver or fungus and used in the food industry
Catgut (A): dried and twisted intestines of the sheep or horse
Caviar(e) (A): roe of the sturgeon and other fish
Cellulose (V): the principal component of the fiber of plants. Cellulose is usually obtained from wood pulp or cotton (which contains about 90% cellulose)
Cetyl alcohol (B): found in Spermaceti or synthetic
Cetyl palmitate (B): Spermaceti, can be synthetic
Chalk (B): Calcium Carbonate
Charcoal (B): charred bone or wood
Chitin (A): organic base of the hard parts of insects and crustacea e.g. shrimps, crabs
Chamois (A): soft leather from the skin of the chamois antelope, sheep, goats, deer etc.
Cholecalciferol (B): Vitamin D3
Cholesterol (A): a steroid alcohol occurring in all animal fats and oils, nervous tissue, egg yolk and blood.
Chondroitin (B): used in products designed to help alleviate the effects of osteoarthritis. Produced synthetically or derived from the cartilage of cows, pigs, sharks, fish or birds
Chymosin (B): Rennin
Chymotrypsin (A): enzyme primarily derived from ox pancreas.
Cinnamic Acid (V): obtained from cinnamon leaves, coca leaves, balsams like storax or isolated from a wood-rotting fungus. Can be made synthetically.
Citric Acid (V): derived from citrus fruits and since the 1920s commercially produced by fermenting sugar solutions with the microorganism Aspergillus niger. The main raw materials used in the production are corn-derived sucrose and molasses.
Civet (B): substance painfully scraped from glands in the anal pouch of the civet cat
Coal tar (V): thick liquid or semisolid tar obtained from bituminous coal (= soft coal)
Cochineal (Carmine, Carminic acid, Natural Red 4) (A): red pigment extracted from the crushed carcasses of the female cochineal insect, a cactus-feeding scale insect
Cod liver oil (A): oil extracted from the liver of cod and related fish
ColFlo 67 (V): modified food starch derived from waxy maize. Used in frozen foods and canned products. Often labeled as 'Food Starch - Modified'
Collagen (A): a protein found in most connective tissues, including bone, cartilage and skin. It is usually derived from cows or chickens
Collagen hydrolysate (A): a purified protein derived from animal sources. It's produced by breaking down gelatin to smaller protein fragments
Colors/Dyes (B): Can be from plant, animal and synthetic sources. Most FD&C and D&C colors are derived from coal tar. Coal tar in itself is considered a vegan product. However, coal tar derivatives cause frequent allergic reactions, like skin rashes and hives. It has also shown to cause cancer in animals. For this reason, colors and dyes are continuously tested on animals. That's why FD&C and D&C colors and dyes can generally not be considered vegan and I will mark them as (B) on this page.
Confectioner's Glaze (A): Resinous Glaze
Coral (A): hard calcareous substance consisting of the continuous skeleton secreted by coelenterate polyps for their support and habitation
Cornstarch/Corn starch (V): starch derived from dried corn kernels
Corn Syrup (V): a form of glucose made from corn starch. It is used as a sweetener
Corn Syrup (V): a form of glucose made from corn starch. It is used as a sweetener
Corticosteroid/Cortisone (B): steroid hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex and their synthetic analogs.
Cottonseed oil (V): fixed oil derived from the seeds of the cultivated varieties of the cotton plant
Crospovidone (V): Polyvinylpyrrolidone
Curcumin (V): Colorant derived from turmeric
Cysteine, L-Form (B): amino acid that oxidizes to form cystine
Cystine (B): amino acid found in the hair protein keratin
Dashi (B): a soup stock that is frequently made using fish flakes. Used in Japanese cuisine.
D&C Colors (B): colors that have been certified safe for use in drugs and cosmetics, but not in food by the FDA (the Food and Drug Administration of the U.S.). See Colors/Dyes.
Dextrin (V): prepared by heating dry starch or starch treated with acids. Can be produced from the starch of corn, potatoes or rice
DiCalcium Phosphate (B): (Dibasic calcium phosphate, Dicalcium orthophosphate) the Dibasic form of calcium phosphate.
Dihydroxyacetone (B): an emulsifier, humectant and fungicide which is obtained by the action of certain bacteria on glycerol
Direct Reduced Iron (DRI) (V): Reduced Iron.
Disodium inosinate (B): flavor enhancer derived from meat, fish (sardines), vegetable or fungal source
Down (A): the undercoating of waterfowl (especially ducks and geese). See Feathers.
Duodenum substances (A): from the digestive tracts of cows and pigs. Can be found in vitamin tablets.
Elastin (A): protein uniting muscle fibers in meat.
Emu oil (A): oil derived from the rendered fat of the emu, a large Australian flightless bird.
Enzymes (B): protein molecules produced by living cells. They act as catalysts in living organisms, regulating the rate of chemical reactions without being changed in the process. Enzymes can be derived from animals, plants, bacteria, fungi and yeast. Most industrial enzymes consist of a mixture of enzymes. Enzymes include actinidin, amylase, bromelain, catalase, chymotrypsin, ficin, glucose isomerase, lactase, lipase, lipoxygenase, papain, rennet and trypsin.
Ergocalciferol (B): Vitamin D2
Erythorbic Acid (V): a food additive used as an antioxidant in processed foods. It's produced from sucrose.
Estrogen/Estradiol (A): from cow ovaries and pregnant mares' urine.
Fatty acids (B): organic compounds: saturated, polyunsaturated and unsaturated.
FD&C Colors (B): colors that have been certified safe for use in food, drugs and cosmetics by the FDA (the Food and Drug Administration of the U.S.). See Colors/Dyes.
FD&C Blue 1 (B): Brilliant Blue FCF. A synthetic dye derived from coal tar. See Colors/Dyes.
FD&C Red 40 (B): Allura Red. Derived from either coal tar or petroleum. It is not derived from insects. See Colors/Dyes.
FD&C Yellow 5 (B): Tartrazine . Derived from coal tar. See Colors/Dyes.
FD&C Yellow 6 (B): Monoazo. Derived from coal tar. See Colors/Dyes.
Feathers (V): epidermal appendage of a bird. Most feathers are removed from birds, especially geese, ducks or chickens, during slaughter as a by-product of the poultry industry. They can also be plucked from live birds, especially ducks and geese, who are bred for either meat, foie gras or egg laying and breeding.
Felt (B): cloth made of wool, or of wool and fur or hair.
Ferrous Lactate (B): derived from the direct action of lactic acid on iron fillings or from the interaction of calcium lactate with ferrous sulfate.
Ferrous Sulfate (V): an astringent iron salt obtained in green crystalline form. Used as an antiseptic in cosmetics and in treating anemia in medicine.
Ficin (V): enzyme derived from the latex of the fig tree.
Folate (B): Vitamin B9.
Folic Acid (V): a synthetic form of Vitamin B9.
Fructose (Syrup) (V): fructose is a sugar that is found in many fruits, vegetables and honey. Commercial fructose and fructose-rich syrups are generally produced from starch (almost always corn starch). It is sometimes produced from inulin containing plants like chicory roots and Jerusalem artichoke tubers.
Gelatin(e) (A): protein obtained by boiling animal skin, connective tissue or bones, usually from cows or pigs. It's an edible form of collagen. It is used as a gelling agent, stabilizer or thickener in cooking. It is also used in glues, photographic films, matches, sandpaper, certain soft drinks, playing cards, crepe paper and more
Glucono delta-lactone (B): also known as gluconolactone or GDL. A fine, white, acidic powder. It is usually produced by the oxidation of a glucose by microorganisms
Gluconolactone (B): glucono delta-lactone
Glucose (B): a simple sugar usually produced by hydrolysis of a starch with mineral acids. Starches used include corn, rice, wheat, potato and arrowroot. It can also be produced synthetically or by adding crystallized cane sugar to a mixture of alcohol and acid. In some countries (like the U.S.) glucose is run through bone-char filters
Glucose isomerate (V): enzyme derived from the bacteria Streptomyces rubiginosus. It is used in the production of fructose syrups (including high fructose corn syrup) by changing glucose into fructose
Glucosamine (B): a dietary supplement used to aid in the relief of joint problems. Usually extracted from the tissues of shellfish. It can also be derived from corn or produced synthetically
Glycerin(e)/glycerol (B): a clear, colorless liquid which is a by-product of the soap-making process obtained by adding alkalies (solutions with a pH greater than 7) to fats and fixed oils. It may be derived from animal fats, synthesized from propylene or from fermentation of sugars. Vegetable glycerin is derived from vegetable fats.
Glycine (B): an amino acid, obtainable by hydrolysis of proteins
Guanine/Pearl Essence (A): obtained from scales of fish
Guar Gum (V): Gum made from ground guar seeds.
Gum Arabic/Gum Acacia (V): a natural gum produced by the acacia tree to heal its bark if damaged. It is used in cosmetics, candy, syrups and as glue.
Hide (A): animal skin (raw or tanned)
High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS) (V): produced by processing corn starch to yield glucose. This glucose is then treated with enzymes to increase the fructose content to make it sweeter. HFCS contains nearly equal amounts of fructose and glucose. It is almost always produced from genetically modified corn.
Honey (A): food made by bees to feed themselves
Hydrochloric Acid (V): formed by heating hydrogen and chlorine gas to form hydrogen chloride gas, which is then absorbed in water.
Hydroxypropyl cellulose (V): a derivative of cellulose. It is used as a thickener in food and for the coating of film and tablets
Hydroxypropyl methylcelluose (HPMC) (V): derived from alkali treated cellulose that is reacted with methyl chloride and propylene oxide. It can be used as an alternative to gelatin in hard capsules
Inositol (B): a sugar-like dietary supplement of the vitamin B complex. Unofficially referred to as vitamin B8. It is present in almost all plant and animal tissues. Commercially, it can be obtained from both animal and plant sources (especially corn).
Insulin (B): pancreas of cattle, sheep or pigs
Inulin (V): a naturally occuring carbohydrate found in the roots and tubers of many plants. It is usually extracted from chicory root.
Isinglass (A): very pure form of gelatin obtained from the air bladders of some freshwater fishes, especially the sturgeon
Katsuobushi (okaka) (A): essential ingredient in Japanese cuisine. It's made by drying either skipjack tuna or bonito fish into hard blocks and then creating flakes by using a shaving tool.
It's used as a topping or filling in many Japanese dishes. It's the main ingredient of dashi.
Keratin (A): protein found in hair, hoofs, horns and feathers
L-cysteine (B): derived from hair, both human and animal, or feathers. Can be synthetically produced from coal tar .
L-cysteine hydrochloride (B): a compound produced from L-cysteine.
Lactic acid (B): acid produced by the fermentation of whey, cornstarch, potatoes or molasses.
Lactase (V): enzyme derived from fungus of yeast. It prevents lactose from being broken down into glucose and galactose. It is used in the dairy industry for people who are lactose intolerant.
Lactoflavin (B): Vitamin B2.
Lactose (A): milk sugar. A type of sugar only found in milk.
Lanolin(e) (A): fat extracted from sheep's wool.
Lard (A): fat surrounding the stomach and kidneys of the pig, sheep and cattle.
Laurel (V): the fresh berries and leaf extract of the laurel tree.
Lauric Acid (V): constituent of vegetable fats, especially coconut oil and laurel oil. Derivatives are used as a base in the manufacture of soaps, detergents and lauryl alcohol.
Lauryl Alcohol (V): compound usually produced from coconut oil (which is naturally high in lauric acid) or from a petroleum based version of lauric acid
Leather (A): tanned hide (mostly from cattle but also sheep, pigs and goats etc)
Lecithin (B): fatty substance found in nerve tissues, egg yolk, blood and other tissues. Mainly obtained commercially from soya bean, peanut and corn
Limestone (V): porous rock formed over thousands of years from the compression of shells and bones of marine animals.
Lipase (B): enzyme from the stomachs, tongue glands of calves, kids and lambs. Can also be from derived from plants, fungus or yeast. It breaks down fat to glycerol and fatty acids.
Lipoxygenase (V): enzyme derived from soybeans. It catalyzes the oxidation reaction. It is used in the baking industry to make bread appear more white.
Lutein (B): substance of deep yellow color found in egg yolk. Obtained commercially from marigold.
Magnesium stearate (B): ester of magnesium & stearic acid
Malic Acid (V): the natural acid present in fruits and vegetables. It's produced synthetically for use in food products, pharmaceuticals, paints, soaps and more.
Maltodextrin (V):sugar obtained by hydrolysis of starch
Methanol (V): also known as methyl alcohol or wood alcohol. It used to be produced as a byproduct of the destructive distillation of wood. Currently it is usually produced synthetically.
Methyl alcohol (V): Methanol
Mannitol (Mannite) (V): obtained from the dried sap of the flowering ash or from seaweed
Methyl cellulose (methylcellulose) (V): synthetically produced by heating cellulose with a solution of sodium hydroxide and treating it with methyl chloride. It is used as a thickener in sauces and dressings
Mentha (mint) (V): derived from the flowering plants in the mint family.
Metafolin (V): the brand name for a synthetically produced form of folate, which is chemically identical to the active form of folate found in food. It was created by the company Merck's.
Methyl cinnamate (V): derived by heating methanol, cinnamic acid and sulfuric acid
Methyl chloride (chloromethane) ( (V): a colorless, poisonous gas or liquid mostly of natural origin. It is released into the environment from the oceans and is used as a spray for pesticides in food storage and processing
Milk Sugar (A): Lactose
Mink oil (A): from minks
Modified (food) starch (V): starch which has been treated physically or chemically to modify one or more of its key physical or chemical properties. Physical modification can include drum-drying, extrusion, spray drying or heat/moisture treatment. Chemicals used to modify starch include propylene oxide, succinic anhydride, 1-octenyl succinic anhydride, aluminum sulfate or sodium hydroxide
Mohair (A): cloth or yarn made from the hair of the angora goat
Monoazo (Sunset Yellow FCF, Orange Yellow S) (B): FD&C Yellow 6
Monocalcium Phosphate (B): (Monobasic calcium phosphate, Monocalcium orthophosphate) The Monobasic form of calcium phosphate.
Mono-Diglycerides (B): Emulsifying agents in puddings, ice cream, peanut butter, bread etc. Can be derived from plants (oils from corn, peanuts or soybeans) or animals (cows and hogs)
Monosodium glutamate (MSG) (V): produced from seaweed or by a bacterial fermentation process with molasses or starch and ammonium salts
Musk (B): substance secreted in a gland or sac by the male musk deer
Natural (B): ingredients are not synthetic or artificial, but extracted directly from either plants or animal products
Natural flavor (B): flavor derived from spices, fruits, fruit juices, vegetables, vegetable juices, plant materials, meat, seafood, poultry, eggs, dairy products or their fermentation products. The significant function of a natural flavor is not nutritional but flavoring
Natural Red 4 (A): Cochineal
Niacin (B): Vitamin B3.
Nicotinic Acid (B): Vitamin B3.
NutraSweet (V): Aspartame
Nutritional Yeast (B): a commercial food product containing deactivated yeast. It's sold in the form of yellow powder or flakes. It's used as a condiment or food supplement. It's often vegan, but some brands use animal products like whey.
Octinoxate (V): also known as octyl methoxycinnamate. Ester of methyl cinnamate
Octyl Methoxycinnamate (V): Octinoxate
Oestrogen (B): female sex hormone from cow ovaries or pregnant mares' urine
Oleic acid (B): fatty acid occurring in animal and vegetable fats
Oleic alcohol (B): oleyl alcohol. A fatty alcohol derived from natural fats and oils, including beef fat and fish oil. It can also be manufactured from esters of oleic acid.
Oleoic oil (A): liquid obtained from pressed tallow
Oleostearin (A): solid obtained from pressed tallow
Oleth-2 through 50 (B): polyethylene glycol ethers of oleic alcohol
Orange Yellow S (B): FD&C Yellow 6
Oxybenzone (V): derived from isopropanol, which is prepared from propylene, obtained in the cracking of petroleum
Palmitate (B): salt or ester of palmitic acid
Palmitic acid (B): fatty acid that occurs in palm oil and most other fats and oils
Panthenol/Dexpanthenol/Vitamin B Complex Factor (B): can come from animal, plant or synthetic sources
Papain (V): enzyme derived from the unripe fruit of the papaya plant. It is used for clearing beverages, added to farina to reduce cooking time and used medically to prevent adhesions
Paracasein (A): the chemical product of the action of Rennin or pepsin on casein. To make hard cheese, paracasein is combined with soluble calcium salts to form calcium paracaseinate (cheese curd)
Paraffin (V): waxy substance obtained from distillates of wood, coal, petroleum, or shale oil
Parchment (B): skin of the sheep or goat, dressed and prepared for writing etc
Pearl (A): concretion of layers of pain-dulling nacre formed around a foreign particle within the shell of various bivalve molluscs, principally the oyster
Pectin (V): a substance that is found in the primary cell walls and the non-woody parts of plants. Pectin is used as a gelling agent, thickener and stabilizer in food. Commercially, pectin is obtained mostly from dried citrus peels and apples as a by-product of juice production.
PEG (B): PEG is the abbreviation of polyethylene glycol or polyoxyethylene glycol. They are polymeric forms of ethylene oxide. They can be either synthetic or derived from animal or vegetable sources.
Pepsin (A): enzyme usually derived from the stomach of grown calves or sometimes pigs.
Petroleum (V): an oily, flammable liquid composed of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons occurring in many places in the upper strata of the earth. A fossil fuel believed to have originated from both plant and animal sources millions of years ago.
Pharmaceutical Glaze (A): Resinous Glaze.
Phenol (V): obtained from coal tar
Phosphoric Acid (V): an inorganic acid produced by reacting ground phosphate rock with sulfuric acid.
Placenta (A): organ by which the fetus is attached to the umbilical cord
Polyethylene (V): a product of petroleum gas or dehydration of alcohol
Polyglycerol polyricinoleate (B): produced from castor oil and glycerol esters
Polysorbate 60 (B): a condensate of sorbitol with stearic acid
Polysorbate 80 (B): a condensate of sorbitol and oleic acid
Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) (V): a water-soluble polymer from synthetic origin. Used in products like pharmaceutical tablets, shampoo, toothpaste, batteries, paint and adhesives.
Polyoxyethylene (8) stearate (B): a mixture of stearate and ethylene oxide
Polyoxyethylene (40) stearate (B): a mixture of stearate and ethylene oxide produced by a reaction of ethylene oxide with stearic acid
Potassium Chloride (V): occurs naturally as the mineral sylvite and is found combined in many minerals and in brines and ocean water.
Potassium Hydroxide (V): obtained commercially from the electrolysis of potassium chloride solution
Potassium Lactate (B): the potassium salt of Lactic Acid
Potassium Sorbate (V): sorbic acid potassium salt. Manufactured by neutralisation of sorbic acid with potassium hydroxide.
Progesterone (B): sex hormone
Propolis (A): bee glue. Used by bees to stop up crevices and fix combs to the hive
Propylene/propene (V): flammable gas obtained by cracking petroleum.
Propylene glycol (B): 1,2-propylene glycol; propane-1,2-diol. Manufactured by treating propylene with chlorinated water and treating it with sodium carbonate solution or by heating glycerol with sodium hydroxide and distilling the mixture.
Propylene/propene oxide (V): a flammable liquid, derived from propylene
Quinoline Yellow (B): obtained by the interaction of aniline with acetaldehyde and formaldehyde or by distillation of coal tar , bones and alkaloids
Reduced Iron (V): also known as Direct Reduced Iron (DRI) or Sponge Iron. It's used to fortify foods, like flour. It's produced from either iron ore or mill scale (the surface of hot rolled steel) by reduction with hydrogen or carbon monoxide.
Rennet (B): extract usually obtained from a newly-born calf stomach. Rennet contains the enzymes Rennin and a little amount of pepsin. The older the veal calf, the more pepsin will be found in the rennet. Rennet can also be derived from synthetic sources or from bacteria and fungus
Rennin (B): enzyme found in rennet. It is used to split the casein molecule during cheese making to clot milk and turn it into curds and whey
Red 40 (B): FD&C Red 40
Resinous Glaze (A): also known as pharmaceutical glaze, confectioner's glaze, pure food glaze and natural glaze. It's made from various types of food grade shellac. It is also known as beetle juice, even though the lac insect it's derived from is a scale insect and not a beetle.
Reticulin (A): one of the structural elements (together with elastin and collagen) of skeletal muscle
Riboflavin (B): Vitamin B2
Riboflavin-5-Phosphate (B): A more soluble form of riboflavin
Roe (A): eggs obtained from the abdomen of slaughtered female fish
Royal jelly (A): food on which bee larvae are fed and which causes them to develop into queen bees
Sable (A): fur from the sable marten, a small carnivorous mammal
Salicylic Acid (V): derived from the leaves of wintergreen, meadowsweet, willow bark or other plants. It can also be produced synthetically by heating phenol with carbon dioxide
Shellac (A): insect secretion
Silk (A): cloth made from the fiber produced by the larvae ('silk worm') of certain bombycine moths, the harvesting of which entails the destruction of the insect
Sodium Alginate (V): the sodium salt of alginic acid extracted from brown seaweed.
Sodium Aluminum Sulfate (V): white solid used as an acidity regulator in foods. It is mainly used in the manufacturing of baking powder. Produced by combining sodium sulfate and aluminum sulfate.
Sodium Benzoate (V): the sodium salt of benzoic acid. Produced by reacting sodium hydroxide with benzoic acid. Used as a food preservative.
Sodium Bicarbonate/Baking Soda (V): bicarbonate of Soda
Sodium Carbonate (V): Soda Ash. A sodium salt of carbonic acid.
Sodium Chloride (V): chemical term for table salt. It can be mined (rock salt), obtained by adding water to salt deposits (evaporated salt) or obtained from oceans and salt lakes (sea salt).
Sodium Hydroxide (V): Caustic Soda. A water-soluble solid usually produced by processing salt water. It used to be obtained from the ashes of a certain kind of seaweed.
Sodium Lactate (B): the sodium salt of Lactic Acid
Sodium Laureth Sulfate (SLES) (V): the sodium salt of sulfated ethoxylated lauryl alcohol
Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (SLS) (V): prepared by sulfation of lauryl alcohol followed by neutralization with sodium carbonate
Sodium Metabisulfite (V): an inorganic salt. White to yellowish powder with sulfur dioxide odor. Used as a disinfectant, antioxidant and preservative.
Sodium Phosphate (mono-, di-, and tri-) (V): synthetic material generally prepared by the partial or total neutralization of phosphoric acid using sodium carbonate or sodium hydroxide.
Sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate (B): prepared from Lactic Acid and fatty acids
Sodium Sulfate (V): the sodium salt of sulfuric acid.
Sorbic acid (V): white powder obtained from fruit or produced synthetically
Sorbitan monolaurate (V): derived from raw materials of vegetable origin. Commercially known as Span 20
Sorbitan monostearate (B): manufactured by reacting stearic acid with sorbitol to yield a mixture of esters. Commercially known as Span 60
Sorbitan monooleate (B): derived from animal or vegetable sources. Commercially know as Span 80. The vegetable derived version is know as Span 80V
Sorbitan monopalmitate (V): derived from raw materials of vegetable origin. Commercially know as Span 40
Sorbitan tristearate (B): derived from animal or vegetable sources. Commercially known as Span 65. The vegetable derived version is know as Span 65V
Sorbitan Trioleate (B): derived from animal or vegetable sources. Commercially know as Span 85. The vegetable derived version is known as Span 85V
Sorbitol (V): a sugar alcohol derived from fruit like cherries, plums, pears, apples or from corn, seaweed and algae
Sourdough starter (B): also known as "starter culture", "sourdough culture" or "sour culture". It is usually made with a mixture of flour and water inhabited by yeast and lactobacteria containing no animal ingredients. Sometimes yogurt is used in the starter. Bread made from a sourdough culture is called sourdough bread
Sperm oil (A): oil found in the head of the various species of whales
Spermaceti (A): fatty substance derived as a wax from the head of the sperm whale
Sponge (B): aquatic animal or colony of animals of a 'low order', characterized by a tough elastic skeleton of interlaced fibers
Sponge Iron (V): Reduced Iron.
Squalene/squalane (B): found in the liver of the shark (and rats)
Starch (V): a complex carbohydrate found in seeds, fruits, tubers, roots and stem pith of plants such as corn, potatoes, wheat, beans and rice.
Stearate (B): salt of stearic acid
Stearic acid (B): fat from cows, pigs, sheep, dogs or cats. Can be obtained from vegetable sources
Stearin(e) (B): general name for the three glycerids (monostearin, distearin, tristearin). Formed by the combination of stearic acid and glycerin, chiefly applied to tristearin, which is the main constituent of tallow or suet
Stearyl alcohol (B): prepared from sperm whale oil or vegetable sources
Stearyl tartrate (Stearyl palmityl tartrate)(B): made from stearyl alcohol and tartaric acid
Sucroglycerides (B): obtained by reacting sucrose with an edible fat or oil with or without the presence of a solvent
Sucralose (B): known under the brand name Splenda. It's produced from cane sugar. Some but not all Splenda producers have confirmed that they don't use bone char as a filter. Sucralose is tested on animals.
Sucrose (B): sugar
Suede (B): kid-, pig- or calf-skin tanned
Suet (B): solid fat prepared from the kidneys of cattle and sheep
Sugar (B): a sweet crystallizable material that consists wholly or essentially of sucrose. It is obtained commercially from sugarcane or sugar beet. Beet sugar is vegan, but some cane sugars are processed through boneblack.
Sulfur Dioxide (V): a toxic colorless gas formed primarily by the combustion of sulfur-containing material, like fossil fuels.
Sulfuric Acid (V): oil of vitriol. A highly corrosive acid usually produced from sulfur dioxide.
Sunette (V): Acesulfame
Sunset Yellow FCF (B): FD&C Yellow 6
Synthetic (V): ingredient is produced by chemical synthesis, which means that parts or elements are combined to form a whole. Unlike artificial products, synthetic products are made from ingredients that do not occur (independently) in nature.
Tallow (A): hard animal fat, especially that obtained from the parts about the kidneys of ruminating animals
Tartaric Acid (V): an organic acid present in many fruits, especially in grapes. Usually obtained as a byproduct of wine making.
Tartrazine ((B): FD&C Yellow 5
TBHQ (Tertiary Butylhydroquinone) (V): a synthetic food preservative used in oils, margarines, crackers, fast foods and many other food products. It's produced from phenol and butane.
Tertiary Butylhydroquinone (V): TBHQ.
Testosterone (B): male hormone
Thiamine Mononitrate (V): synthetic form of vitamin B1. It's synthesized by removing a chloride ion from thiamine hydrochloride and by mixing it with nitric acid.
Thiamine Hydrocholide (V): synthetic form of vitamin B1. Produced from coal tar, ammonia, acetone and hydrochloric acid.
Toluene (V): a colorless liquid hydrocarbon, derived from petroleum processing.
Tricalcium Phosphate (B): (Calcium phosphate, tribasic) The tribasic form of calcium phosphate. Also known as calcium orthophosphate. Consists of a mixture of calcium phosphates.
Tocopherols (V): Vitamin E
Trypsin (A): enzyme usually derived from porcine pancreas
Turmeric (V): an East Indian perennial herb
Urea (B): also known as carbamide. A waste product of digested protein filtered out by the kidneys and excreted from the body in urine. Commercially it is almost always produced from synthetic ammonia and carbon dioxide. It is rarely produced from animal urine.
Vegetable Carbon (B):derived from either burnt vegetable matter, incomplete combustion of natural gas, activated charcoal, bones, blood, meat or various fats oils and resins
Vegetable Glycerin (V): Glycerin derived from vegetable fats.
Vellum (B): fine parchment prepared from the skins of calves, lambs or kids.
Velvet (B): fabric made usually of silk but also rayon or nylon.
Vitamin A (retinol) (B): an aliphatic alcohol. Some possible sources are fish liver oil, egg yolks, butter, lemongrass, carrots or synthetics.
Vitamin B1 (Thiamine, Thiamin) (B): used to fortify foods or as a supplement. Two of the synthetic forms are known as thiamine mononitrate and thiamine hydrocholide.
Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin, Lactoflavin) (B): used as a food coloring, to fortify foods or as a supplement. Produced synthetically or by a fermentation process with genetically modified Bacillus subtilis. It's usually vegan, but in rare cases it can be produced from animal sources like beef, especially when it's marked as being "natural".
Vitamin B3 (Niacin, Nicotinic Acid) (B): used as a cholesterol treatment, to fortify foods or as a supplement. The largest commercial use is to fortify animal feed. It's usually produced synthetically. In rare cases it can be derived from animal sources.
Vitamin B7 (B): Biotin
Vitamin B9 (Folic Acid, Folate) (B): used to fortify foods or as a supplement, especially for pregnant women. It's usually produced synthetically. Folate is the general term for Vitamin B9, whereas folic acid refers to the synthetic compound used in supplements and food fortification.
Vitamin B Factor (B): Biotin
Vitamin C (V): Ascorbic acid
Vitamin D2 (Ergocalciferol) (B): vitamin usually derived from plant sterols or yeast. Can also be derived from animal fats.
Vitamin D3 (Cholecalciferol) (B): vitamin usually derived from animal sources like lanolin, milk, egg yolk and fish liver oil. Can also be derived from microbial or synthetic sources. Please note that synthetic vitamin D3 can have an animal ingredient as their starting raw material.
Vitamin E (V): natural-source vitamin E (d-alpha-tocopherol) is obtained by distillation of vegetable oils (primarily from soya beans, rapeseed and sunflower); synthetic chemically manufactured vitamin E (dl-alpha-tocopherol)is a mixture of eight diastereoisomers in equal proportions.
Vitamin H (B): Biotin
Volaise (A): ostrich meat
Waxy maze (V): Corn starch. The sticky material from the inside of the corn kernel.
Waxed Paper (B): is often coated with paraffin or tallow . Waxed paper from the companies If You Care (100% soybean wax) and Natural Value (100% paraffin) are vegan.
Whey (A): residue from milk after the removal of the casein and most of the fat. By-product of cheese making.
White Mineral Oil (V): obtained from petroleum and used in baked goods.
Wool (A): hair forming the fleecy coat of the domesticated sheep (and similar animals)
Xanthan gum (corn sugar gum) (B): gum produced by the fermentation of corn sugar with a microbe called Xanthomonas campestris. Often vegan, but can be purified by using chicken lysozyme or derived from the fermentation of whey.
Yeast (V): a microscopic unicellular fungus. Different yeast products include baker's yeast, nutritional yeast and brewer's yeast.
Yellow 5 (B): FD&C Yellow 5
Yellow 6 (B): FD&C Yellow 6
E100 (V): Curcumin
E101 (B): Riboflavin, Vitamin B2
E101a (B): Riboflavin-5-Phosphate
E102 (B): Tartrazine, FD&C Yellow 5
E104 (B): Quinoline Yellow
E110 (B): Sunset Yellow FCF, Orange Yellow S, FD&C Yellow 6, Monoazo
E120 (A): Carminic acid, Carmine, Natural Red 4, Cochineal
E129 (B): Allura Red, FD&C Red 40
E133 (B): Brilliant Blue FCF, FD&C Blue 1
E150a (B): plain caramel. It is manufactured by heating carbohydrates with or without acids or alkalis
E150b (B): caustic caramel. It is produced like E150a, but in the presence of sulfite compounds
E150c (B): ammonia caramel. It is produced like E150a, but in the presence of ammonium compounds
E150d (B): sulfite ammonia caramel. It is produced like E150a, but with both sulfite and ammonium compounds
E153 (B): Carbon Black, Vegetable Carbon
E160a (V): Carotene. Note: gelatin may be used as a stabilizer. See beta carotene.
E160b (V): Annatto, bixin, norbixin
E160c (V): Capsanthin, capsorubin, Paprika extract. Extracted from the fruit pod and seeds of the red pepper
E162 (V): Beetroot Red, Betanin. Natural extract from beetroot
E163 (V): Anthocyanins
E170 (B): Calcium Carbonate, Chalk
E200 (V): Sorbic Acid
E202 (V): Potassium Sorbate
E211 (V): Sodium Benzoate
E223 (V): Sodium Metabisulfite
E270 (B): Lactic Acid
E282 (V): Calcium Propionate
E296 (V): Malic Acid
E300 (V): Ascorbic Acid, Vitamin C
E315 (V): Erythorbic Acid
E322 (B): Lecithin
E325 (B): Sodium Lactate
E326 (B): Potassium Lactate
E327 (B): Calcium Lactate
E341 (B): calcium phosphate
E375 (B): Vitamin B3
E385 (V): Calcium Disodium EDTA
E406 (V): Agar, agar-agar
E407 (V): Carrageenan
E412 (V): Guar gum
E415 (B): Xanthan gum
E420 (V): Sorbitol
E421 (V): Mannitol
E422 (B): Glycerin(e), Glycerol
E430 (B): Polyoxyethylene (8) stearate
E431 (B): Polyoxyethylene (40) stearate
E432 (B): Polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monolaurate, Polysorbate 20
E433 (B): Polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate, Polysorbate 80
E434 (B): Polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monopalmitate, Polysorbate 40
E435 (B): Polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearate, Polysorbate 60
E436 (B): Polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan tristearate, Polysorbate 65
E441 (A): Gelatine
E470(a)(B): Sodium, potassium and calcium salts of fatty acids
E470(b) (B): Magnesium salts of fatty acids
E471 (B): Mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids, Glyceryl monostearate, Glyceryl distearate
E472(a) (B): Acetic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids
E472(b) (B): Lactic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids
E472(c) (B): Citric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids
E472(d) (B): Tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids
E472(e) (B): Mono- and diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids
E472(f) (B): Mixed acetic and tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids
E473 (B): sucrose esters of fatty acids
E474 (B): Sucroglycerides
E475 (B): Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids
E476 (B): Polyglycerol polyricinoleate
E477 (B): Propane-1, 2-diol esters of fatty acids, propylene glycol esters of fatty acids
478 (B): Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propane-1
E479(b) (B): Thermally oxidized soya bean oil interacted with mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids
E481 (B): Sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate
E482 (B): Calcium stearoyl-2-lactylate
E483 (B): Stearyl tartrate
E491 (B): Sorbitan monostearate
E492 (B): Sorbitan tristearate
E493 (V): Sorbitan monolaurate
E494 (B): Sorbitan monooleate
E495 (V): Sorbitan monopalmitate
E507 (V): Hydrochloric Acid
E508 (V): Potassium Chloride
E521(V): Sodium Aluminum Sulfate
E526 (B): Calcium Hydroxide.
E542 (A): Bone phosphate
E570 (B): stearic acid
E572 (B): Magnesium stearate, calcium stearate
E585 (B): Ferrous lactate
E621 (V): Monosodium glutamate (MSG)
E631 (B): Disodium inosinate
E640 (B): Glycine and its sodium salt
E901 (B): Beeswax
E902 (V): Candelilla wax
E903 (V): Carnauba wax
E904 (A): Shellac
E910 (B): L-cysteine
E913 (A): Lanolin
E920 (B): L-cysteine hydrochloride
E950 (V): Acesulfame
E1201 (V): Polyvinylpyrrolidone
E1400 (V): Dextrin